The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, and is one of the most important amendments in the Constitution. It addresses a number of issues, including citizenship, due process of law, and the privileges and immunities of citizens.
The most significant provision of the 14th Amendment is the Citizenship Clause, which states that all persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens of the United States and of the state in which they reside. This clause overturned the Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which had held that African Americans could not be citizens of the United States.
The 14th Amendment also includes the Due Process Clause, which prohibits the government from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. This clause has been interpreted by the courts to protect a wide range of individual rights, including the right to a fair trial and the right to privacy.
Finally, the 14th Amendment includes the Equal Protection Clause, which prohibits the states from denying any person within their jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. This clause has been used by the courts to strike down laws that discriminate on the basis of race, gender, and other characteristics.